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Which lasers are suitable for Raman analyses?

A laser suitable for Raman microscopy has the following characteristics:

  • Gaussian beam shape (single longitudinal mode TEM00), so that it can be focused onto a diffraction-limited spot
  • a narrow line shape of well below 1 cm-1, to avoid broadening of the Raman lines
  • very stable in frequency (variations < 0.01 cm-1), to allow stress measurements with high accuracy
  • very stable in intensity (< 1-2 % power fluctuations), to allow accurate and comparable measurements of concentrations
  • Linear polarization, to allow the observation of polarization-dependent sample properties